Listen carefully to what the learner is saying, and offer encouragement.
If you haven’t understood fully, rephrase what you have understood and check to see if you are right. The learner’s reaction and body language can be a good indicator of what they’ve understood and how they feel.
If the learner has difficulty finding the right word or finishing a sentence, ask them to explain it in a different way. Listen out for clues. Also pay attention to their body language. The expression on their face and the way they hold themselves can give you clear signals about how they are feeling.
Allow the learner plenty of time to respond – it may take them longer to process the information and work out their response. Don’t interrupt the learner as it can break the pattern of communication.